In 1984, Dr. Kolb proposed a learning model that championed a four step experiential learning sequence. In his model, Dr. Kolb hypothesized that, for someone to be an effective learner, they needed four distinct skill sets. The first was the ability to act intentionally. The second was the ability to observe and reflect on the real-time, real-life experiences that their actions create. The third was the ability to conceptualize and re-conceptualize these experiences. The fourth was the ability to take these reconceptualizations and, in the best sense of this word, "play" with the new experimental behaviors these new ideas were suggesting.
In action, these skill sets unfolded like this: Immediate action provides the basis for observation and reflection; these observations are pulled together into a conceptual ‘theory,” from which new implications for action are deduced; these hypotheses then serve as guides for “experimenting” with new behaviors in the real world, which, in turn, create new experiences.
In real life, these skill sets produce these results:
- Immediate action creates the experiential basis for personal observations and reflection;
- These reflections allow us to pull together old assumptions into new conceptual theories, from which we can deduce new implications for action;
- These new hypotheses then serve us as guides for “experimenting” with new behaviors in our real worlds:
- In turn, these new behaviors create new experiences for us, which restarts the learning cycle.
Altogether Dr. Kolb's learning cycle looks like this.
For me, Dr. Kolb's Cycle of Learning is the framework I believe most effective learners use to move themselves through their learning efforts. Regardless of whether or not they're aware of it, they inevitably use some version of Kolb's four step learning cycle to guide their learning efforts.
This is true, I think, because Kolb's learning cycle framework supports the three types of learning journeys that are necessary for effective living in today's world, i.e.,...
* The experiential learning we need to do to strengthen skills we already have that are beginning to produce for us less than optimal results.
* The experiential learning we need to do when we're faced with developing new skills we need if we're going to respond effectively to the new challenges we're facing at work and at home.
* The mindset reframing efforts we need to launch if we're going to alter the the basic assumptions and presumptions we're currently holding about our lives and the world that we're living in that all too rapidly are becoming outdated.
Three types of experience-based learning: Two 'horizontal' efforts that are concerned with addressing current, real-world issues where either personal and/or professional improvement is the order of the day. And a third 'vertical' effort that's specifically aimed at opening doorways that lead us to the transformation of old, outdated modes of thinking into new mindsets that will be better suited to tomorrow's new challenges and opportunities .
The horizontal learning efforts are concerned with skill building. They're for those who need to improve existing skills so they can help us respond to new circumstances. And they're for those who need to develop new skills that will match the increasingly complex personal or professional problems that are quickly becoming every day challenges. Horizontal learning's also for those who want to build the leadership talents they need to reach their goals, and/or achieve the recognition they believe they deserve.
Vertical learning efforts are different than horizontal efforts. Vertical learning is an approach that helps people learn how to respond effectively to radically new situations and circumstances. It accomplishes this by helping them learn how to rewire their brains and minds so they can create for themselves new ways of thinking and feeling. It's focused on learning journeys that alter a person's neuronal architecture, especially their brain's neurobiological ways of perceiving, thinking, feeling, and expressing itself.
Together, experience-based horizontal and vertical learning are gradually becoming the foundation for the 21st Century's approach to learning. At TLO, we believe 'lived experience' is the beating heart and the driving force behind both these types of learning journeys. Experientially-based learning, whether their horizontal or vertical, are the skills sets we believe are essential for anyone who wants to effectively respond to the 21st Century's startling challenges and inspiring opportunities.
David A. Kolb is a seminal actor in the experiential learning field. For more than three decades, Dr. Kolb has been a leading proponent of experiential learning. Dr. Kolb is an Emeritus Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University. And he is the founder of Experience Based Learning Systems, Inc. (EBLS).